Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Procter & Gamble Financial Analysis Essay Example for Free

Procter Gamble Financial Analysis Essay What began as a small family-run candle and soap business, grew through innovation, creative marketing and partnerships to become the largest consumer goods company in the world. William Procter, emigrating from England, established himself as a candle maker in Cincinnati, which was a busy center of commerce and industry in the early nineteenth century. And James Gamble, arriving from Ireland, apprenticed himself to a soap maker. The two might never have met had they not married sisters Olivia and Elizabeth Norris, whose father convinced his new sons-in-law to become business partners. As a result, in 1837, a bold new enterprise was born: Procter Gamble. William Procter was born in 1801 in England. As a boy, he worked as general store apprentice, learning to â€Å"dip candles† – a skill that would later lead to both fame and fortune. His first entrepreneurial venture, however, met with disaster. The day after opening, his dry goods shop in London was robbed, leaving Procter $8,000 in debt – a huge sum in 1832. Determined to rebuild, he and his wife decided to immigrate to the United States. While traveling down the Ohio River, Mrs. Procter became ill and died a few months after their arrival in Cincinnati. Procter first worked in a bank. He then decided to use his past experience as a candle maker to earn extra income and help pay off his debt. He took advantage of the fat and oil by-products from Cincinnati’s large meatpacking industry. Procter began as a one- person operation – manufacturing, selling and delivering candles to his customers in the area. During this time, he also met and proposed to Olivia Norris, the daughter of a prominent candle maker in town, Alexander Norris. Meanwhile, James Gamble was born in 1803, in Ireland. He immigrated with his family to America in 1819 as part of a mass exodus from Northern Ireland. They were headed for Illinois, but during the trip, James Gamble, then 16, became violently ill; his parents took him ashore in Cincinnati. By the time James recovered, the family had decided to stay. At 18, James began an apprenticeship with a local soap maker, then years later, opened his own soap and candle shop with a friend. Before long, Gamble met and married Elizabeth Ann Norris, the second daughter of Alexander Norris. The business began during nationwide panic and depression. But the struggling young firm survived. Cincinnati proved a sound business base because as a meat packing center, it offered plenty of fat and oil for soap and candle making. †¢The Procters’ eldest son, William A. Procter, was the first PG President in 1890. †¢Son Harley T. was the company’s first Advertising and Sales Manager. He named Ivory Soap. †¢The Gamble’s eldest son, James N. Gamble, invented Ivory Soap and founded the first laboratory in PG history.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Human Trafficking Essay -- Ethical Issues, Gang, Mafia

"An ounce of cocaine, wholesale: $1 ,200. You can sell it only once. A woman or child is $50 to $1,000 but you can sell her each day, every day, over and over and over again. The markup is immeasurable." (Human Trafficking) says David Sutherland who plays Bill Meechan an ICE agent in Lifetime's movie Human Trafficking. The buying and selling of humans is an age old issue that has dated as far back as 1750 B.C. Although slavery is illegal in the United States, we still see it happening in our own towns and cities all through America. Each year there are over 20,000 woman and children illegally imported across the United States borders for domestic and sex slavery. Laws, some new, and many that have been around for hundreds of years, have been passed and approved by congress to protect our natural rights. In order to alleviate instances of human trafficking and sex slavery, society as a whole must demand that government be harsher, more diplomatic and aggressive to fight this "special evil" (Landesman 1), as President Bush referred to it. There needs to be more money in the hands of immigration and naturalization to control our borders better, and more government funding in education to raise awareness of human trafficking for our own protection and for the protection of individuals Kevin Bales, President of Free the Slaves (a nonprofit organization to support the victims of human trafficking) estimates that today there are over 20,000 women and children annually trafficked across United States borders. It is said that at any given time there are an estimated 30,000-50,000 people being held in captivity in the United States (Landesman 4). The women and children that are bound into this sick and tw... ...nd children trafficked across the world. At any given time there are over 30,000 victims of this "special evil". Just the amount of women stuck in captivity within the United States is more than the amount trafficked worldwide. This is an unbelievable problem socially, economically, and morally. These women are tortured, mentally and physically, daily for as long as they can last in this entrapment. Each year there is an Mease 8 -", estimated 7 billion dollars earned in shadow market. This money is used for drugs, gangs, mafia, violence, and other types of domestic slavery. AIDS and many other diseases are also spread because of this issue. There is absolutely nothing positive that could ever come from human trafficking. Together citizens and authorities of government can combat this problem with the tools of education and government funding.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Improving Study Habits Essay

â€Å"The greatest time saver is being organized. Establish routines that go like clockwork.† Maximizing time makes an individual productive. Personal time management is organizing and managing according to personal priorities, to get where one wants to go. Those who use this technique are the highest achievers in all walks of life. The interesting and essential step in beginning to manage time more effectively is to identify how time is being spent, because only through examining, one can begin to set priorities, eliminate time barriers and aids to better time management. In the course of Bachelor of Science in Psychology, students need to learn many skills that are needed in practicing the actual profession. Psychology students have so many academic requirements to prioritize, but they also have extra-curricular that are important as well, and they always need to cope with time pressure. College is an entirely different situation than high school. Classes consist of far fewer grades, but they are worth it when you are done. Do not tell yourself, â€Å"I’ll read the assignment later,† because often times you merely end up cramming right before the test; research indicates that cramming is not the best (nor is it the worst) method of studying. At first, different factors can affect the academic performance of a students in order to achieve success, going through the steps are necessary. It should provide time for students to review activities and prevent too many errors that results to unaccomplished tasks or tasks that are accomplished, but after several attempts to do so. It reduces avoidance and welcomes other opportunities that could help in preparing for other tasks. This study will contribute to the perception of the future psychology students in prioritizing the academic activities and requirements in terms of importance and urgency. The researchers conducted a survey regarding the said topic at Centro Escolar University among the second year psychology students. The purpose of this study is to identify the factors affecting the study habits and the effects to academic performance on psychology students’ particularly in the second year level. Habits (or wonts) are routines of behavior that are repeated regularly and tend to occur subconsciously or â€Å"A habit, from the standpoint of psychology, is a more or less fixed way of thinking, willing, or feeling acquired through previous repetition of a mental experience.† As behaviors are repeated in a consistent context, there is an incremental increase in the link between the context and the action. This increases the automaticity of the behavior in that context. Features of an automatic behavior are all or some of: efficiency, lack of awareness, unintentionally, and uncontrollability. And a bad habit is an undesirable behavior pattern. Anyone interested in getting better results, becoming more productive and ultimately more successful should probably take an honest look at the problem of procrastination. Most people think procrastination is just an issue that involves putting things off that can be done later without much of a penalty. But if procrastination will become your habit especially in your study what would be the effect of it in your academic performances? Statement of the problem. 1. What are the bad habits/behavior/attitude toward the respondent’s subjects? Ans. Gagawin pa yang sentence. Lack of interest in the subject area, Unable to set priorities (extra curricular activities, entertainment, etc.), Lack of prerequisites for success in the current subject area, Unstable home life ability to concentrate, lack of interest or motivation to succeed, procrastinating, habitual lateness, overextension, Inability to Prioritize, Negative Mindset and Fear of Failure 2. Does the negative attitudes and habits of psychology students affect their academic performances? 3. The reasons why they act/behave that way. Gagamitan naten to ng theories ha :†) at d pa to tapos. Lack of Focus, Family problems, social lives (including texting, IM’ing, etc.), outside distractions (phone, music, TV),

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Communist Manifesto Essay - 1230 Words

Karl Marx in his â€Å"Communist Manifesto† states that the wage gap will eventually result in revolutions of working class across the world, and consequently difference in classes will be vanished. Whereas, Robert Reich in â€Å"Why the Rich are Getting Richer and the Poor, Poorer† argues that American strategy of economic development, which is based on expansion of the production, will lead to collapse of American economy. Though, the poor people will suffer of various deprivations, wealthy people will be putted into even more unenviable situation in both cases. Moreover, scenario given by Marx in his work proposes the worst position for the rich people than Reich describes. First of all, the equal situations illustrated by both authors are†¦show more content†¦Firstly, only rich men living in America will encounter such issue, so the fellow rich men in different places of the World will become wealthier, using American goods. Secondly, wealthy people, who will be smart enough to predict imminent crash of the USA, will always have enough time to immigrate to different, successful country with all the accumulations and consequently remain rich. In addition, there will be another type of suffered rich people; they are the children of those rich men who spent all their capital to lengthen their life via expensive medical solutions (Reich, p.25). As for them, they will either be born poor already or during the childhood they will observe how their parents were wasting their money for meaningless medical support, but in both examples, they would not have enough time to accustom to rich life. So their loss will not be significant, also that situation could be easily avoided by proper management of finances. This way, according to Reich, wealthy people will not get doomed in such case. Whereas, Marx describes revolutionary seizure of power by working class and disposing the ruling class for the sake of one equal society, as a consequence of wage gap. Marx claims that in his times, there actually were only two classes in society. One is the proletariat, â€Å"a class of laborers who live only so long as they find work, and who find work only so long as their labor increases capital† (Marx, p.36).Show MoreRelatedEssay on The Communist Manifesto672 Words   |  3 PagesThe Communist Manifesto nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Marx describes the problem in great detail in the first chapter. He feels there is a problem between the bourgeoisie and the proletarians. The bourgeoisie were the oppressed class before the French Revolution and he argues that they are now the oppressors. The proletarians are the new working class, which works in the large factory and industries. 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Overall, an interestingRead MoreThe Portrayal Of Women s Crime And Punishment And The Communist Manifesto Essay1263 Words   |  6 PagesThe Portrayal of Women in Crime and Punishment and the Communist Manifesto Women are discussed and or portrayed in both â€Å"Crime and Punishment† by Fyodor Dostoevsky and â€Å"The Communist Manifesto† by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. In â€Å"Crime and Punishment† there are several female characters, many of which play large roles in the main characters’ story. However, women are only mentioned a few times in â€Å"The Communist Manifesto†, but it is essential to the point the authors are trying to convey. EachRead MoreKarl Marx And Friedrich Engels s Communist Manifesto1756 Words   |  8 PagesIn 1840s Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels wrote Communist Manifesto. Marx and Engels wrote this document due to being members of the Communist Leagues. The Communist Manifesto was a very influential document after the Industrial Revolution. With the industrial class increasing this document was published to end class social. Because of the rise of industries, workers have to leave their previous work and work at industries, wor kers health will be affected when they live near the cities, their communitiesRead MoreMarx, Mill And Freud s Critique Of Political Economy And The Communist Manifesto Essay1133 Words   |  5 Pagesof freedom in unique ways, but their messages are fundamentally the same and continue the ideas that we encountered in the esoteric texts as well as in The Matrix: . First, we have Karl Marx’s Capital: Critique of Political Economy and The Communist Manifesto, where we encounter the proletariat, or the working-class people regarded collectively. In these two texts, the latter of which was co-authored by Frederick Engels, we learn that the proletariat is enslaved just like the people in the matrixRead MoreEssay about Karl Marxs Communist Manifesto1353 Words   |  6 PagesKarl Marxs Communist Manifesto Faith and Reason Communism can seem very desirable. â€Å"It argued a world without war, in which the meek and the disadvantaged would share without distinction, the anticipated material and spiritual abundance generated by advanced.†(Gregor 19) This seems as though it would be the ideal form of government but in reality it is far from that. I will tell you about three of the most powerful communist countries of the twentieth century. The countriesRead MoreThe Communist Manifesto: . The Proletarian And Communist1787 Words   |  8 PagesThe Communist Manifesto: The Proletarian and Communist Ideological Relevance in Society Today. 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Friday, December 27, 2019

Autoclenz Ltd v Belcher - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 11 Words: 3162 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Law Essay Type Cause and effect essay Did you like this example? Introduction: The conclusion in Autoclenz Ltd v Belcher Ors[1] indicates a subtle, albeit potentially significant shift in the approach when deciding Employment Status and Sham Agreements.[2] Prior to this case, the written terms of a contract prevailed as long as it is not a à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“shamà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ . However the Supreme Court, in this case, has deemed such an approach too literal, thereby ruling that a written employment contract may be disregarded if the reality of the situation detracts largely from the essence of the agreement. As a result, it undermines the absolute mandate of a written contract, ensuring the protection of any oppressed parties. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Autoclenz Ltd v Belcher" essay for you Create order At the same time, it presents an alternate approach to apply for cases of doubt on the genuineness of contract terms where there is substantial dichotomy in bargaining power between the parties, as opposed to usual commercial transactions.[3] Brief facts about the case: The Claimants are 20 individual valeters who each signed a contract with Autoclenz to provide car washing services. Under the contract terms, the Claimants are expressly described as self-employed and should be working on a subcontract basis. It is also stated in the agreement that they are responsible for their own Tax, National Insurance Contribution (NIC) and cleaning materials. However, the contract did not explicitly state down any clause permitting the use of substitutes to perform valeting services on the Claimantsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ behalf.[4] The Claimantsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ self-employment state was also confirmed by the Inland Revenue in 2004 but the decision was regarded as à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“enigmaticalà ƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  by the Supreme Court.[5] In 2007, the Claimants signed another contract to ascertain that any contractual relationship between them and the company is not of employer and employee.[6] It is also important to note that the 2007 contract contained a clause stating, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“For the avoidance of doubt, as an independent contractor, you are entitled to engage one or more individuals to carry out the valeting on your behalf.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ [7] The contract also stated that the Claimants à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“will not be obliged to provide your services on any particular occasion nor, in entering such agreement, does Autoclenz undertake any obligation to engage your services on any particular occasion.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  [8] In reality, the working conditions of the Claimants detracted largely from the written terms. While the Claimants were responsible for payment of their own Tax and NIC, the company actually provided cleaning equipments and arranged group insurance cover. The company subtracted a fixed sum, for the insurance and cleaning provisions, from the Claimantsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ weekly payment that was due after they submitted weekly invoices from their work. In addition, the Claimants were required to work on daily basis and must notify the company if they were absent from work. As a result, the Claimants appealed to be recognised as employees or workers of Autoclenz in order to gain access to the rights and benefits of an employee or a worker. They would then be paid in accordance with the Section 54 of the National Minimum Wage Regulations 1999 (NMWR) and receive statutory paid leave under the Regulation 2 of the Working Time Regulations 1998 (WTR).[9] However, Autoclenz argued that the Claimants were not qualified to any statutory rights according to the contract terms as they were self-employed contractors. Key issue: The primary issue faced by the Court in this case was how to draw a clear legal distinction between employees, w orkers and self-employed. Although this is a significant issue, it is not an easy task as there is very little statutory guidance provided for the Courts by way of the common law.[10] There are three possible rulings for the Claimantsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ status: The Claimants are self-employed. The Claimants are employees, which is defined in the section 230(1) of the Employment Rights Act 1996(ERA) as à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“an individual who has entered into or works under a contract of employment.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ [11] The Claimants are à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“workersà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  and often called a à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“limb (b) workerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  under Section 230(3) of the ERA .[12] The worker is define as à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“ an individual who has entered into or works under a contract of employment ;or any other contract, either expressed or implied and (if it is expressed) whether oral or in writing, whereby the individual do or perform personally any work or services for another party to the contract whose status is not by virtue of the contract that of a client or customer of any profession of business undertaking carried on by the individual.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  An individual can only exercise his employment rights such as unfair dismissal by having a status of à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“employmentà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ . Compared to employees, workers have fewer rights but they are still entitled to holiday pay. In contrast Self-employed contractor are not given any statutory rights other than certain protection under health and safety legislation. Due to the entitlement to different rights, the status of the Claimants is very important. One way of ascertaining any employment status is to find out whether there is a contract between the parties.[13] Since there is a contract between the Claimants and Autoclenz, the Court has to establish whether it is a contract of employment by applying the three key elements which illustrated in Ready Mixed Concrete (South East) Ltd v Minister of Pensions and National Insurance.[14] To summarise, the employee must be under an obligation to perform the work individually. Secondly, there must be mutuality of obligation, in other words, interdependency between the employer and employee. Lastly, the employer must have an adequate power of control over the employee.[15] Background for Relevant Principles: In order to understand the impact of this case on the law, we shall first look at the previous position of the Court on Sham Agreement. In the case of Consistent Group Ltd v Kalwak, the Claimants signed contracts which engaged themselves as self-employed sub-contractors.[16] Before it was appealed to the Court of Appeal , Elias J in the Employment Appeal Tribunal concluded that the reality of the situation should prevail if it is à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“wholly inconsistentà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  with the nature of the relationship.[17] However in the Court of Appeal, Rimer LJ criticised Elias Jà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s approach and held that it was not possible to impose such terms to the contract because it would go against the legality of the written contract terms. He held that to make a finding of à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬ Å“shamà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ , both parties must have the intention to trace a false picture as opposed to the actual contractual obligations according to the case Snook v London and West Riding Investment Ltd. [18] In a later case Protectacoat Firthglow Ltd v Szilagyi, instead of following the Court of Appeal decision in Kalwak, the Employment Tribunal held that the Claimant was an employee due to the dichotomy between the contract terms and the actual relationship between the parties. Therefore, the contract is regarded as a à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“shamà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ .[19] This decision was then upheld by Smith LJ in her leading Court of Appeal Judgment who concurred that the contract terms are shams as à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"they did not describe or represent the true intentions and expectations of the partiesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢.[20] As we can see from the two cases above, the source of conflict in ordinary law is in the terms of the agreement. Despite the great body of case law which has built up over the years, the Court still failed to provide a clear guideline or test that judges can apply in the future when determining oneà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s employment status. Freedland has suggested that the Courtsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ task in discerning employment status has become more difficult to accomplish rather than less and that the accumulation of cases contributed only to the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“weight rather than wisdomà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢.[21] A case in point is that although the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“reality testà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  was rejected by the Court of Appeal in Kalwak, its principle was still referred to during the Szilagyi case, which arguably goes against the doctrine of judicial precedents. Thus it creates ambiguity as to whether or not the reality test is valid and which decision the later Court should follow. This problem again surfaces in the case of Autoclenz, becoming the crux of the debate within each court. Decisions: Employment Tribunal (ET) Employment Judge Fo xwell ruled in favour of the Claimants and held that they were both employees and workers since there was significant degree of control exercised by the company to fully integrate the Claimants into its business.[22] While the Claimants are entitled to engage substitute workers and supposedly do not share a relationship of mutual obligations with Autoclenz, the reality was antithetical from what was expected, as mentioned in the case detail above. From the sole perspective of the law, it is impossible for the Claimants to fall under the definition of an employee or even a worker as the two contracts signed are absolute in legal terms.[23] However, the Court considered the fact that if the Claimants had not signed the contracts, they would have lost the job as they had no rights for the negotiation of terms. At the same time, the judge also believed that Autoclenz did not fully explain pertinent clauses of the 2007 contract to the unknowing and ignorant Claimants and thus deprived them of their rights as sub-contractors.[24] Thus by using this purposive approach instead of a literal one, the Court ruled in favour of the Claimants. Employment Appeal Tribunal (EAT) Judge Peter Clark reversed the ETà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s decision and held that the Claimants were not employees but workers. Judge Clark pointed out that the ET Judge Foxwell misdirected himself in adopting the incorrect à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“reality testà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  formulated in Kalwak. [25]According to the doctrine of precedent, Judge Foxwell should have referred to the decision made by the Court of Appeal. In other words, since the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“reality testà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  has already been overruled in Kalwak, the approach is no longer relevant in the case of Autoclenz. As a result, Judge Peter Clark felt obliged to follow the precedent case of Kalwak (Court of Appeal)and ruled that the contract terms were not à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“shamà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  and thus they are not employee but workers. A ccording to the doctrine of Parliament Supremacy, judicial law making is undemocratic and thus should be avoided, as the Parliament is the only one who can amend the law. This literal approach by EAT clearly captured the principle of separation of power between the Parliament and the Courts. In addition, the resulting ruling by the Court also provides certainty and consistency thereby making it easier for the lawyer to advice their clients on employment legality. On the other hand, the approach could also be deemed as rigid as it failed restore justice for the Claimants who clearly had less bargaining power. The Court thus could arguably have neglected the core spirit of the Employment law which is to protect the vulnerable citizens with less bargaining power from those powerful organisations. Court of Appeal (Civil Division) The Court of Appeal (Smith, Sedley and Aikens LJ) restored the judgment of the ET, dismissing Autoclenzà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s appeal while accepting the Cla imantsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ cross-appeal. Smith LJ held that the car valeters were employees, despite the contract describing them as self-employed. Employers, and their advisers, cannot draft their way out of employment status if that does not accord with the reality of the relationship. This was particularly so in an employment contract where it was not uncommon to find that the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"employerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ was in a position to dictate the written terms and the other party was obliged to sign the document in order to get the job.[26] According to the ordinary law of contracts, once a consensus was made for the contract terms, the judges generally avoid implying terms into a contract since it is the partiesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ responsibility to have reached an agreement before signing the contract as illustrated in the case of Chartbrook Ltd v Persimmon Homes Ltd.[27] Freedom of contract usually prevails. Aikens LJ emphasized that it is not in the judgesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â €ž ¢ intention to alter the principles behind the ordinary law of contracts.[28] Instead, all three judges believed that a distinction should be drawn between this case and other ordinary commercial dispute because there may be an element of inequality of bargaining power between the parties.[d1] We can see the judges have taken into consideration of the huge impact that employment law has upon society since it concerns the public. Thus, in order to achieve the underlying principle of employment law, the principles of ordinary law should be set aside here. Sedley also highlighted the importance of making decision that is practical rather than à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“[in] odd [with] themselvesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ .[29] In this case, notwithstanding the repeated interpolation of the word à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“sub-contractorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  , there was ample evidence on which the judge could find the truth of the employment relationship between the parties. The Court also raised several controversies . While Smith LJ focused on the reality test, Aikens LJ believed that it was à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"not helpfulà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ because what is important was the actual agreement. This disparity between the judgments makes it hard to derive the overarching reasoning for this case. It also poses difficulty in developing a coherent approach when juxtaposing the two judgments and reading them together, as suggested by Aikens LJ.[30] Supreme Court: The main point of consideration for the Supreme Court was whether the decision in ET was correct. If so, in what circumstances the ET may disregard the contract terms and look at the actual agreements, intentions or expectations between the parties.[31] In the end, the Supreme Court unanimously dismissed Autoclenzà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s appeal and upheld the Court of Appealà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s decision by agreeing to the use of purposive approach by the ET. The Supreme Court also agreed with Aikens LJà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s comment on that the Cour t should avoid concentrating too much on the private intentions of each party in the contract such as any selfish profits gained from exploitation.[32] Instead, the Court stressed on the importance to take into account of bargaining power of the parties in contracts relating to employment.[33] All in all, this decision raises pertinent points on the issue of employment status. Businesses often use contracts that exclude one or more elements in an attempt to prevent individuals from having à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“employmentà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  status and thus benefits from it. This generates fear amongst the publicà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬ that they are not being protected by the law and receiving rights that they deserved. However this case re-instills confidence into the general public by showing that despite the contract terms being the basis of determining oneà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s employment status, a purposive approach can be used by the Tribunal. By going beyond the contract terms, the Court is ab le to gain a bigger and more realistic picture and ensures that more people are protected by the law. Hence, this could be perceived as a social policy decision by the judge in order to protect the public interest and restore justice. Conclusion: Following the final ruling by the Supreme Court, there are several implications on the law and, by extension, future similar cases that are worth elaborating. Courts will be able to set aside contractual terms which are inconsistent with the reality of the relationship of the parties, which shows the progression and adaptability of the law system. Undoubtedly, the case of Autoclenz provides a very significant employment status judgment. The case serves as a warning to companies as they will no longer have the comfort of hiding behind specifically worded contracts.[34] It also signifies that companies need to review their commercial terms to consider whether the contractual terms reflect the reality of the working relationship at th e time the contract was entered into, including any subsequent variation of those terms. Moreover, it ensures the employment law remains relevant to the development in economic where there is a huge increase of sub-contractor working arrangements. However, there seems to be a confliction between the method used in determining oneà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s employment status between the Court and the Inland Revenue. We will usually assume the decision by a government department is accurate and reliable but this case seems to suggest it is not the case. This leads to the question as to whether decision should public as guidance. Furthermore there is still ambiguity as to under which circumstances the ET can disregard the expressed contract terms and base its decision on the actual agreement, since there is no concrete conclusion given by the Court. Apart from the conflict between the Court and the Inland Revenue, there is also a great debate about the use of purposive approach between t he Courts. The use of purposive approach allows the judge to interpret the likely intention of Parliament and carry out a justified judgment. Judges achieve this by filling in the gaps of employment law and making sense of the enactment rather than by opening it up to destructive analysis. Such a broad approach allows the law to cover more situations in a flexible way. However, this approach has been criticised by Lord Simonds as à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“a naked usurpation of the legislative function under the thin disguise of interpretation.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  and he also pointed out that if a gap is disclosed the remedy lies in an amending Act which should be done by Parliament. Hence, this calls for more clarification. Also, the Court disregarded all the fiscal and other consequences of its decisions which could open the floodgate to self-employed contractors appealing for rights such as holiday pay retrospectively. Thus, there remains a great uncertainty as to when orthodox contractual ru les should be set aside and the reality of a potential employment relationship should be analysed. In my opinion, Parliament should undertake relevant reforms in this area of law to provide further guidance. This is because, as mentioned earlier, not all judges will accept the use of purposive approach and future cases might have a completely different ruling based on the judge philosophy on the role of the Court and interpretation of law. Hence, while justice is done in this case, it may not necessarily means that future cases will be so unless reform is achieved. [1] [2011] UKSC 41 [2] C Lake , Autoclenz: employment status revisited [2011] Tax J. 1092, 16-18 [3] David Roderick, Employment Law Update (Farrars Building 2011) [4] [2011] UKSC 41 Para 4 [5] [2011] UKSC 41 Para 5 [6] [2011] UKSC 41 Annex Clause 3 [7] [2011] UKSC 41 Para 6 [8] [2011] UKSC 41 Para 8 [9] UKEAT/0160/08/DA Para 9 [10] [2009] EWCA Civ 1046, per Smith LJ 1-2 [11] UKEAT/0160/08/DA paragraph 8 [12] UKEAT/0160/08/DA Paragraph 9 [13] L Bowery, Its always a question of status [Apr 2013 ] Employ. L, 14-15 [14] [1968] 2QB 497 at page 515C MackKenna Jà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s judgment [15] L Bowery, Its always a question of status [Apr 2013 ] Employ. L, 14-15 [16] [2008] IRLR 505 [17] [2007] IRLR 560 [18] [1967] 2 QB 786 [19] [2009] IRLR 365 Para 7 [20] 2009] EWCA Civ 98 Para 58 [21] M Freedland, The Personal Employment Contract (2009) 21 [22] UKEAT/0160/08/DA Para 14 [23] [2011] UKSC 41 Para 10-11 [24] [2011] UKS C 41 Para 10 [25] UKEAT/0160/08/DA Para 19 [26] [2009] EWCA Civ 1046 Para 49 [27] [2009] UKHL 38 [28] [2011] UKSC 41 Para 34 [29] [2009] EWCA Civ 1046 Para 105 [30] [2009] EWCA Civ 1046 [31] [2011] UKSC 41 Para 17 [32] [2011] UKSC 41 Para 32 [33] [2011] UKSC 41 Para 34 [34] E Harvey , Case Study:Autoclenz Ltd v Belcher Ors [2011] UKSC 41 (DWF 2011) [d1]Isnà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t this under the supreme court But ok to put here. Ià ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢m just curious Cause it is first said by the CA but it was later affirmed by lord clarke in SC. So i thinj maybe better to said it in CA And the previous part i deleted. Cause i also dont understand..i thought u will understand the judgement.hahahhaha Is wrote by the judge, i did not change a single work.. But ok la.. Just remove that part,

Thursday, December 19, 2019

The Effects Of Coal Mining On Air Pollution - 2078 Words

Introduction It is widely acknowledged that energy has been a great issue across the world. Coal mining is a major source of energy, the demand of which has increased rapidly with the growth of development. However, some environmental issues are generated in coal mining operation, among which concerned most by environmental authorities is air pollution. Air pollution are generated at all phases of coal mining, including drilling, blasting, overburden loading and unloading, coal loading and unloading, road transport and losses from exposed overburden dumps, coal handling plants, exposed pit faces and workshops (Chaulya, 2004). The major contaminant in air pollutants is recognized as particulate matter (PM). In this circumstance, the understanding of coal mining impacts in air quality due to PM is crucial; and plenty of researches have been done to reveal such kind of impact. This article provides a critical literature review of effects generated by coal mining, with a focus on airborne particles. Some literatures used in this article contain impacts of other air pollutants like SO2, NO, etc. which will be ignored. Two major questions will be discussed here: (1) what effects coal mining will generate on PM; (2) on what extent these environmental impacts have been realized, studied and understood (with generalization and limitations). PM impact Research scope PM is described as ‘a mixture of mixtures’ by EPA, which is constituted of many types and sizes of particles.Show MoreRelatedEnvironmental Issues of Coal Mining1728 Words   |  7 PagesENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES OF COAL MINING INTRODUCTION Coal is the most abundant fuel resource in India. It is the prime source of energy and perhaps the largest contributor to the industrial growth of the country. 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Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Organisation - Management and Practising

Question: Describe about the Organisation, Management and Practising? Answer: Introduction This paper intends to provide information in relation to organisation, management and practising different approaches of self-managed learning, in order, to improve performance as self directed learners. This information would help in the preparation of meeting personal and professional goals. The paper analyses and discusses a range of self-management approaches and lifelong learning with regard to my personal experience, and addresses the benefits of self-managed learning process. Further, SWOT analysis will highlight my personal skills and competencies to work competently in an organisation setting. Personal development plan with particular career objectives is also provided in the paper. Last but not least, one specific work-related problem has been addressed with the solution of the problem, together with effective time management strategies. Task 1a) Discussion Self-managed learning enhances learning and discovering of new things by learners at their own pace (Boud, 2013, p.10). The autonomy imparted to people is very high in self-reflective learning. It allows them to set objectives where individual learning and development is concerned. This enables learners to judge methodologies and outputs of a learning program (Figure 1). Self-managed or self directed learning is an approach where individual learners discover a number of different ways to learn new things. This could be in the society people are living or at workplace that represents a diversified setting. Self-managed learning is a process that set goals and objectives for the learning and evaluates the purpose for learning (Figure 1). People can learn new things from cultures of different people, actions or personality. Learners are not bound to obtain knowledge from the classrooms; rather they can learn at their own pace and gain knowledge of new things from a variety of sources su ch as internet, social networking sites and peer groups. Self-managed learning provides people with an opportunity to devise their strategy of learning and ways to discover new knowledge. This would help in the long term retention of the information and help them to face future challenges relating to professional sphere of life (Graves, 2013, p.12). Figure 1: Self-managed Learning. Source: Graves (2013) Approaches to self-managed learning. Learners can learn and discover new information from the research studies that can be either issued by the learning institute or even by organisations where they are employed (Pedler, 2011, p.23). This helps them to analyse the current environment of UK and relating facts to the subject. Following are some approaches of self-managed learning. Attending Training Sessions and Business Conferences: Individuals from different arena come together in business seminars and shares their real life experiences and explains how these experiences influenced their professional development (Pedler, 2011, p.22). Being a part of these sessions helps in gaining a fresh insight and knowledge on various subjects including business cases. This in turn helps a learner to have knowledge on how business issues can be attended to and solved with minimal effort in the business world. Training and business conferences will also boost my confidence when it comes to public speaking, communication and presentations skills that are crucial for career development in business. This for me is a wealth of knowledge, presented by many speakers in one place at a time. The disadvantage are cancellations If I use public scheduled courses there is a risk that the course can be cancelled. Normally this is because I have low attendance. One of the major challenges in seminars is sharing of incorrect information by the speakers. Seminars will not be effective if the speakers are not knowledgeable and may impart wrong information to inexperienced listeners, thereby reducing the final outcome of seminars. Social Media: I join online groups of professional bodies on social media to draw information of famous people and their business experiences. Furthermore, I will read online business articles and annual reports of different firms to get idea about the business operations and functions. The advantages are great number of people, as it is easy way to say something to somebody. However the disadvantages then it is just a virtual space, nothing can be replace with real communication, exchange of information and emotions, ideas, face- to- face. Research Work: Research works and refereed journals are available across the educational sectors and helps in updating ones knowledge as they publish authentic, updated and reliable information that can be applied to different organisational settings. Lifelong learning is the constant, voluntary and self-motivated pursuit of information for either individual or occupational rationales. This, it not just improves societal inclusion, proactive citizenship and employability, but also self sustainability together with competitiveness (Bunderson Boumgarden, 2010, p.609). The process relates with ongoing knowledge acquisition that can contribute to the specialised framework. This brings in personal and professional development. People can have personal evaluation as a means to support the process of lifelong learning. The advantages are that it provide me in depth informations about work, allows description of behavior as it occurs in the natural environment, researchers have a good control and direction of the study without much limitation. The disadvantages are method cannot be verified objectively the nature of the data does not allow use of statistical analysis. Time consuming and requires a lot of labor. Continued Professional Growth: An approach of this nature encourages combination of various learning modalities and ideas to boost learning and development in a continuous manner. I can enhance my professional growth by taking feedback and changing according to it. The advantages are that it help me to get what I want of course if I am interested to go further to achieve my desired goal. The disadvantage is to do the work and finally someone come to say that does not meet the necessary requirements. Self - Reflective Learning Approach: Self-reflective learning is an innovative critical approach that reviews feedback. The learners are therefore empowered to review the procedures they undertake for performing various tasks, there by taking responsibility for their own actions. The major advantage of this approach is that, it will help me to develop and improve new competencies simultaneously working on my personal skills, while fulfilling responsibilities on job. The disadvantage is that I can learn wrong if a do not consult a teacher or a specialist. Online Learning: Learning can also be enhanced through newspapers, seminars, web articles and peer groups (Bourner, 2011, p.117). Self- learning can be considered a platform that will provide its learners with an opportunity to formulate a strategy for successful completion of a task. Online learning will act as a helpful tool to overcome challenges because of enhancements in technology and is especially useful in long term. Self-managed learning approach cannot be ignored because of the fast pace of the organisational and technical advancements, and online learning makes a way for learners to excel in their profession. The advantages are effective because I can finish my homework quickly and is more time for finding a job or have a rest. The people have the chance to study in their own time and especially for free. The disadvantages are online learningcannot offer human interaction.Competition between colleagues can be very stimulating and students will only benefit from it. Online learning can be difficult for that disciplines that involve practice. Task 1(b) Benefits of Self-managed Learning to me and my organisation. Self-managed learning is all about individuals undertaking initiatives within their own pace while evaluating their learning and development goals. Self-managed learning benefits both the organisation and the learner. Self-managed learning explain the correlation between the personal success of a person to that to team success and business success (Figure 2). The following figure associates the influence of self-managed learning on organisation and the individual. Figure 2: Influence of Self-managed Learning (individual and organisation). Source: (Bourner, 2011) Benefits to me Individuals get easily involved in self-directed learning process. Hence they can self-manage the training activity based upon their own evaluation of the assignments required for the work and taking part in the learning course to close the gap between existing and desired set of skills. Individuals become able to generate their personal and professional development, which highlights particular work-related competencies, different as compared to more general human resource skills. Further, they become able to evaluate themselves against the future work requirements, creating a career growth path for the employment they seek. Following are additional benefits that linked with the self-managed learning process. Team work is an important part of educational curriculum now. This helps the learners to have first-hand experience on team work that is of utmost importance in any given workplace. Presentations, that are also a part of the curriculum in universities and colleges provides stude nts with an opportunity to share and gain knowledge and boosts their confidence in public speaking as well as communication skills. This in turn benefits organisation as their new employees are already trained and present oral and written reports to the managers (Boud, 2013, p.12). Self-managed learning also helps in the development of the social and communication skills relevant to an organisational atmosphere. Synergy and determination to succeed will also be higher in followers of self-managed learning. Organisation is benefitted here as it provides a platform for knowledge sharing and innovative thinking. Benefits to my organisation Most significantly, the process of self-managed learning is employee-focused; however it offers ample gains to the whole organisation. Self-managed learning helps managers in effective decision making process by referring to business cases made available through academic learning, research, seminars and professional experiences. Information is made accessible to managers through self-managed training and allows them to be aware of ethical issues that are bound to occur, thus preventing the organisation from both public and ethical issues. Application of theories and knowledge in real organisational settings is enhanced through self-managed learning unlike theoretical knowledge. Business organisations value such talents who do not compromise on their individual commitments and are simultaneously swift and receptive to various tasks allotted to them. Self-managed learning tools will helps learners to attain these qualities by not losing their focus from organisational goals (Bunderson Boumgarden, 2010, p. 620).In my organisation, self-managed learning provides managers with the capability to provide coaching services to employees with a definite action plan, assign then task as per their abilities and have informational-based discussions in relation to perceptual differences. Further more leaders can determine what kind of organisational strategy should be pursued based upon workers existing strengths or weaknesses or how the management may seek to change the strategic approach. Self-managed learning is also a functional tool that provides executives with the skill to align learning goals with the organisational objectives, develop information-driven growth and action plans, and radically change the employees requirements according to the changing trend of technical sphere (Jackson, n.d, p. 2). Task 2(a) Skill Audit A skill audit is the review or comparison of an individuals existing skills with the skills that are required (Pasteur, 2010, p.2). It helps to identify keys skills and how can a person fill the gap to achieve the desired skills (Business Essentials, 2013, n.d.). Table 1. SKILL TYPICAL DESCRIPTORS SKILL LEVEL Low High SPECIFIC COMMENTS Communications Structure and format of letters, memos, e-mails, reports. Structure and format: techniques for effective presentations; using the telephone; meetings. 1 2 3 4 5 In all my writing courses I have always received a satisfactory grade. I have given presentations in class and coursework and always felt nervous when it comes to big audience. Although I have always received a positive feedback regarding my performance from supervisors as well as colleagues. Personal Interpersonal Relating to others; building rapport and positive relationships; being sensitive to people needs; using influencing and persuasive skills to help others improve performance or overcome problems; listening effectively and providing feedback; being assertive; use of body language. 1 2 3 4 5 It is my nature to make a to-do list for every day. I organise my things and work and allocate specific amount of time for each task to manage them effectively. Technical Skills Selecting suitable solutions; analysis of appropriateness. 1 2 3 4 5 I have the basic the technical knowledge as well as advance which includes how to evaluate things at the construction site. I prefer to take advice from superiors as a precaution. Table 2. Competency. COMPETENCY TYPICAL DESCRIPTORS COMPETENCY LEVEL Low High SPECIFIC COMMENTS Building team Training; estimates of employees and productivity; the disciplinary. 1 2 3 4 5 Most of the time I, choosing my own team, segregate workforce in regards with their experience and support them with training. Communications Listening and organizations; clarity of communication; to receive objective information. 1 2 3 4 5 I have a good attention on details. I can get from my superiors the required information and deliver it to my group to the best way. Informative Definition of a problem and decision; it is clear to think analytically. 1 2 3 4 5 I can identify a problem but sometimes I find the solution with the help from my experienced colleagues and learn from this. The KKB Group has been offering professional services to sustain the construction and renewal sectors for around ten years. This organisation targets on effective fulfilment of their already set SMART objectives by their employees. This target achievement requires evaluation of their employees to ensure that they possess the required talent pool. Some of the major qualities that these organisations look forward to includes time management, stress management, communication and leadership skills, interpersonal and strong presentation skills along with their potential to perform in a team (Cottrell; 2010, p.14). These skills can have a direct positive or negative influence on organisational goals. On comparing the required skills to my current skill set, I have communication skills along with outstanding technical skills, reliability, and timeliness. I also work well with different groups and perform in a team. I am social and is open to learning which all qualities that employers look forward are. My business skills should be improved to develop a career in retail industry (preferred industry) Task 2(b) SWOT Analysis: At present, I am a 360 excavator and tele-handler driver in Construction Company of UK. I also perform supervisory role in my job. Considering myself, my strength includes good interpersonal skills, outgoing nature and open to learning. My weaknesses are that I tend to get distracted when I do repetitive work and I fail to perform when under extreme stress. I have an opportunity to develop a career in business management and learning new concepts and theories over time. Further, I am looking forward to learn more about technical skills as per my job demands. Table 3 my SWOT Analysis. StrengthsGood interpersonal skills among other staff members.Gain experience within desired career filed.Devoted to active learning process.Ability to handle stressful situations.Able to understand and value the beliefs, norms, cultural values, customs, standards and viewpoints of others.Patient WeaknessesGet distracted with repetitive tasks and similar kind of learning activities.Unable to manage tasks in stressful situations.IT skills.Communications.Ignorant.Nave OpportunitiesWant to explore new things over time regarding construction business.Develop career in construction management field as a project manager.To learn more about technical skills as per my job demands.Technology ThreatsFinancial issues.Recession across the country.Loss of jobs due to over qualifications.Competition with colleagues. Personal and Professional Development Plan Table 4. Personal and Professional Development Plan. NAME: NICOLAE BOGHEAN STUDENT NUMBER: 13315 COVERING THE PERIOD FROM: February 2015 TO: February 2016 What do I want/need to learn? What will I do to achieve this? What resources or support will I need? What will my success criteria be? Target dates for review and completion Leadership Skills. Training. Conferences. Human. Opportunity of volunteer to lead in group project. My high level of confidence. Become a confident leader. Resistance to stress. 1 year Technical skills. Observation. Training. Learning. Human. Finance. Time. Confidence. I am seeking to have career in the construction industry. 1 year Speaking Skills. Training. Observation. Speaking practice. Learning. As much conversation during work programme with many experienced people. Time. To become a good presenter in my group. 1 year Task 3(a) Training is the procedure to ensure the growth of professional skills through qualification, training and specialization for people who is looking for a new job, in order to achieve mobility and (re) integrate them on the labor market. The advantages are helps me to gain recognized qualifications - NVQs key skills and a technical certificate, participating in such courses help me to have greater confidence in their actions and to increase their professional efficiency. The disadvantage are go to training courses it may take longer to get there with some things learned from my practice, changes of information what I learn today will probably change next month or next week. Conferences is a meeting of two or more persons for discussing matters of common concern. The advantages conferences, first is the availability of specialized equipment in conference place. Projectors, widescreen TV, sound systems and lightning are a few to mention, which would boost the image of your proposed or product launch. The disadvantage is not enough time to discuss the issue for this reason the company seeks to limit the amount of time to spend at conferences. Observation is a statement when you see something good or bad and make a notice. The advantage is that by the method of observation the investigator come and get the real pictures of the behaviors as they manifest in natural settings. The disadvantage is that in many cases, the observer must wait until the event takes place properly, some types of observations are time consuming and no results. Speaking practice will help me to memorise the new words used in conversation, increase the level of English language, the more I talking the more freely speak without mistakes. However the disadvantage in my speaking practice is that I rush when I talk and sometimes I say wrong word automatically, I am worry when talking I feel like my English is not good enough. Task 3(b) My goal is to become a good manager and can manage a site, because I am seeking to have a career in the construction industry. I value education and hence hope to continue my education in top notch business school, so that I could specialise in business administration. I will also take necessary training in business studies to raise up to organisational requirements, also enhancing my personal and professional qualities. I also look forward to completing my Masters in Business Administration, which will help me to gain an insight to excel in the business field. Work with project managers to learn about managing rotational tasks. Get myself enrolled in the training programs. I want to obtain a new performances in activity, Improving provided services. Because in the future I want to become manager, I need to participate in conferences which helps me to speak much better and experience to speak with the staff. Frequenting conferences can learn many things from my collegues. From time to time I will go to sessions with high hopes to meeting my expectation. Another reason to attend the conference is the network that I can know and meet new people working in the same industry. There is an incredible amount of sharing and learning new information. I want to help others and share my knowledge with others. Observation means to know, to examine an object, a process to make findings and remarks about what I see. The observation helps me to obtain information necessary for solving decision problems. Information obtained through observation can be used separately or can be correlated with information generated by other methods. The speed of information collected helps me to get certain types of information in a shorter notice than by asking questions to the subject. Like manager at work and I do not like to do observations about the work, I do not mind if anyone make me an observation. About speaking practice I want to improve a bit more, I will take online courses of speaking and reading as well, I read books news papers I can see a bit better, listen to others when they speak and memorize the words. Speaking will enrich me the personal and professional life. Public speaking for me is success indicating critical thinking skills, leadership and professionalism. Speaking practice will help me to improve my communication skills. Task 4(a) Most employees suffer from workplace stress that takes a toll on their personal and professional life. It has an adverse impact on health, work performance and balance of life. Hence it is essential to address this problem in an effective way to negate the ill effects of stress in an employees life. Negative impact of stress are many including absenteeism, lack of timeliness, lack of responsibility, and increasing employee turnover in a company. Stress is often caused by factors including having too many superiors to be answerable to at the same time, multi-tasking forced on employees, work overload, fear, haste and fatigue. HR manager carry out different measures to minimise stress in an organisation (Wolever et al., 2012, p. 246).At strategic level, managers try to encourage communication among employees to ensure that there is no role conflict. This help employees to have a clear perspective on what is required out of them. Clear communication using symbols by managers will also e nsure that there is no misalignment of roles undertaken by the employees. At tactical level only SMART objectives should be set by the company. Constant provision of feedback and review of performance will make employees evaluate and improve their own performance. In operational level there should be more empowerment of employees through decentralisation and independence, challenging targets at work and also constructive criticism. One solution to combat the stress is humor laughter is very healthy for both individuals and business. Other solution sufficient rest. Trying some new ways of thinking. When there are worries, thoughts, they should be removed. If something cannot be resolved, regardless of solution try not have insisted will be counted another activity, and later, if required, can return to that issue. Everyone must learn to say "No". Learning skills can be developed through joining different self-management learning programs where people come together to plan and plot details in relation to personal and professional development (Sarabdeen, 2013, p.1). Learning groups guides its participants by offering cost effective as well as a distinctive strategy to solve issues and plot a development path in professional life and resolve major issues. Very often problem development skills are developed by facing and resolving problems. Task 4(b) Following are the strategies for effective time management Aligning priorities: This strategy sets priorities for completion of different tasks, thereby helping employees to distinct between what task is more important at a given time and which one is not.However disadvantage is sometimes I am in a hurry or when I am not careful I can give priority to things that were not important and that is my big mistake inattention. Making use of a planning tool: planning tools like electronic planners or even a pocket diary helps in effective time management, as a result to which productivity can be improved efficiently. Making a list of tasks will help in focussing on current priorities and achieving them.The disadvantage is that sometimes planning tool cannot be met, because the work did not go according to the plan, some work may be late and already plan failed.Get Organised: when a person is organised, it makes it easier to fall into a routine where tasks can be completed on time without stress and confusion. I consider myself an organised person. I plan everything in my life I start with morning routine and ending with tasks before I go to bed. The disadvantage is if something does not happened according to the plan, this is a disaster. Eliminate the Unnecessary: This becomes true every day more and more. The advantage it helps me to concentrate on the main things that cannot be done later. The disadvantage is if I remove the unnecessary item from the job it take me time to do it and have less time to finish the job. Reduce Interruptions: If I am working on something important and one of my employees comes to me with something that I know can be do it later time I will help him later. On the other hand, if my boss calls me when I am in the middle of something, well, that is an interruption that is worth making a priority. The advantage are if I reduce the interruption the job can be done quicker than was planned. The disadvantage it is a risk to get sick from fatigue, depending what job you doing can happen an accident if interruptions is reduced.